FAQ: Students Asked, We Answered

Young Canadians who want to know more about how our democracy works ask us some good questions. Below, we’ve listed the most common questions we get from high school students, along with our answers.

How does Elections Canada keep our elections secure?

From voter registration to the counting of ballots—and everything in between—each step of the electoral process has a number of safeguards in place. Here are some of the safeguards that keep our elections safe and secure:

  • ballots have several security features, such as a specific colour of paper and a unique serial number that allows election workers to ensure ballots are not switched
  • voters must prove their identity and address when they go to vote
  • after someone has voted, the poll clerk crosses their name off the voters list so they can’t vote again
  • once voting is done, election workers must go through a series of steps to count the ballots. All counting is done by hand, and observers may watch the votes be counted
  • ballots are kept in storage so they can be recounted if the results are close or disputed

In addition to these physical safeguards at the polls, Elections Canada also works closely with national security agencies to protect our elections from cyberthreats.

Check it out: For more information on safeguards in the electoral process, visit the Elections Canada website.

Why do some ridings change boundaries or names over the years?

Canada’s population is always changing. People move around for work, babies are born, some communities grow and others shrink. That means our electoral districts, or ridings, need to change, too. This redistribution happens every 10 years, after the Census. The latest redistribution process ended in September 2023.

Ridings are created by independent electoral boundaries commissions in each province, not by Elections Canada. Drawing a riding can be complicated. Commissions must consider many factors when creating or adjusting ridings, including:

  • population size
  • a community’s shared culture and identity
  • the history of the riding
  • total area and geography

Because of this, every riding is unique. The largest riding in terms of total area is Nunavut, which measures over 2 million km2. The smallest riding is Toronto Centre, at only 6 km2. 

Currently, there are 338 ridings in Canada. New electoral districts will come into effect for a general election that is on or after April 23, 2024. Enter your postal code on the Elections Canada website to find your riding.

Check it out: Try dividing an imaginary country into fair electoral districts, considering both human and physical geography, in the activity, Mapping Electoral Districts.

Young people are the future of our country, but they vote in lower numbers than people in other age groups. What is Elections Canada doing to get more youth to vote?

Elections Canada is committed to making voting more accessible to all Canadians, including youth. Here are a few steps that Elections Canada has taken to make voting easier for young people:

  • offering education programs for elementary and high school students
  • doing outreach to campuses and youth organizations
  • putting polling places on more than 120 university and college campuses
  • commissioning studies, such as the National Youth Survey, to better understand why some young people don’t vote

In the 2015 election, young people voted in much higher numbers than they had done in decades, but they still voted less than any other age group. Visit the Youth Voting Trends page on the Elections Canada website to learn more about what motivates young Canadians to vote.

Check it out: Looking for a fun inquiry-based in-class exercise to explore youth voting trends? Check out Elections Canada’s educational resource Elections by the Numbers.

Where does Elections Canada stand on electoral reform?

Elections Canada does not take a position on electoral reform.

As a non-partisan agent of Parliament, Elections Canada’s role is to run federal elections, by-elections and referenda. Whatever electoral system is in place, this means making sure that Canadians are able to exercise their democratic rights to be a candidate and to vote.

Parliament revisits this issue from time to time to make sure our system is working in the best interests of citizens. This ongoing discussion is just one way to keep our democracy healthy.

Although Elections Canada doesn’t take a stand on electoral reform, future voters should stay curious and informed. Take a look at some of the other electoral systems being used around the world.

Talk about it: Do you think a different electoral system would work in Canada? Why or why not?

Check it out: Visit Elections Canada’s website to see more FAQs.

How does Elections Canada prevent false and misleading information about federal elections?

It’s important that Canadians have the facts they need in order to exercise their right to vote. Elections Canada makes sure that voters know it is the official source for information about when, where and how to register and vote in a federal election.

To help with this, the agency publishes on its website an archive of all its communications products, like ads or flyers, so that people can easily check whether a piece of information they came across actually came from Elections Canada.

The agency also has a special team that monitors social media before and during a federal election to detect false and misleading information that could affect voters’ ability to register or vote.

Check it out: The resource, Digital Skills for Democracy, teaches five simple strategies for verifying information through real and realistic scenarios.

Are there other ways to vote if someone can’t get to the polls on election day?

Sometimes voters know they will be busy or out of town on election day, and that’s okay. There are several different ways to cast a ballot.

  • They can vote at advance polls.
  • They can vote at an Elections Canada office.
  • They can vote by mail.

Learn more about the different ways to vote.

Is Canada introducing online voting?

Canadians can do just about everything online, but they won’t be voting online anytime soon. A lot of work is needed before Canada has an online voting system that is safe and secure.

Of course, there would be some benefits to online voting:

  • convenience: imagine voting from the couch in your pyjamas!
  • more options for voters on when and how they cast their ballots
  • easier access for people who have a hard time getting to the polls
  • a safe way to vote during a public health crisis

So why are we still using an old-fashioned method like pencils and paper to mark our ballots? Because pencil and paper can’t be hacked.

Online voting is just not secure enough: if an election was hacked, our democracy would be under threat. It’s too risky.

Here are some other downsides of online voting to think about:

  • privacy and secrecy concerns, such as information getting out about your identity or how you voted
  • fraud, such as someone voting under a false identity, or voting more than once
  • manipulation, such as being pressured to vote a certain way
  • lack of transparency: since no one is there to observe the vote, people may have less confidence in the voting process and results

Talk about it: Are the potential benefits of online voting worth the risks?

In Australia, people must vote by law. Why don’t we have a law like that in Canada?

Mandatory voting works well in Australia. They’ve had it for a long time, almost since their first election. Because of this, it is widely accepted, just like jury duty or paying taxes. But what works in one country may not work in another.

The right to vote in Canadian elections is protected by the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Exercising this right is up to each of us. Taking away that choice would probably be an unpopular decision. Some people might even see it as undemocratic.

Mandatory voting has been shown to increase voter turnout by about 20 percent. But some people have been critical of the idea of casting a ballot only to avoid a fine.

Talk about it: Can you think of other ways to encourage people to vote?

Why can’t people under 18 vote?

Voting age is determined by Parliament, which revisits this topic from time to time. In fact, the voting age used to be 21!

Here are some arguments for lowering the voting age to 16:

  • 16-year-olds are considered responsible enough to drive a vehicle
  • they can work, and some pay taxes, so they should have a say in how their tax dollars are spent
  • voting for the first time while they’re still in school will encourage young people to be lifelong voters

Those who are against lowering the voting age argue that:

  • 16-year-olds are still minors and do not have full responsibilities as citizens
  • they are still learning and developing the judgment that will help them exercise their right to vote
  • young people (18- to 24-year-olds) vote in far lower numbers than the rest of the population; lowering the age even further would lower the overall participation rate and weaken our democracy

Talk about it: Do you think 16- and 17-year-olds should have the right to vote? Would you vote if you were allowed to?

Check it out: Learn more about the history of voting rights in the resource Voting Rights through Time, which includes a case study on youth and the right to vote.

How can I work at the next election?

There are more than 250,000 jobs available during a federal election. That means that on election day, Elections Canada is the largest employer in the country!

If you are a Canadian citizen who is at least 16 years old on election day, you are encouraged to apply. There are jobs available in every corner of Canada. This is not a volunteer job. All positions are paid (including training time).

If you are hired, you will learn first-hand the procedures of a fair election, how voters prove their identity, and the importance of neutrality in an election process. This experience will look great on your resumé and will allow you to give back to your community.

Since election day falls on a school day, check what the rules are in your province or territory. To avoid missing class time, apply to work at advance polls on weekends.

Working in an election does not affect your right to vote, if you are eligible. Only one Canadian citizen over 18 is not allowed to vote: the Chief Electoral Officer of Canada.

Check it out: Students can visit Elections Canada’s Employment page to learn about jobs available during an election and to apply.

If schools gave civics classes the same importance as some other subjects, like math or science, would we see higher voter turnout by young people?

It’s hard to know for sure, but research shows that the more youth know about politics, the likelier they are to be engaged citizens.

Part of being a future voter is having the knowledge to understand the issues and make an informed decision when going to the polls. This is called civic literacy, and it includes:

  • voting
  • understanding how government works
  • knowing how to be an active citizen at all three levels of government

Studies show that the better a young person’s civic literacy, the more likely they are to vote. Young people can even benefit by having conversations about politics with friends, teachers and family. That could have an impact on voter turnout, too. Even if students are not studying civics in school, encouraging them to talk to people about the issues that matter to them can help!

Check it out: Looking for teaching tools on citizenship and democracy? Here’s a good place to start.

If people got election day off work, would more of them vote?

It’s hard to know whether more people would vote if election day were a day off work, like a statutory holiday. By law, employers must give employees time off to vote on election day if their work schedule doesn’t allow them three hours in a row to vote while the polls are open.

Anyway, election day is not the only time eligible voters can cast their ballot. Voters have a few other options to choose from:

  • vote at an advance poll, which is open on the weekend
  • vote in person at an Elections Canada office before the Tuesday before election day
  • vote by mail

With all these options, voters can choose what works best for their schedule.

Check it out: For more information on the ways to vote, visit the Elections Canada website.